It is not very different from other nations, in fact has many similarities for pre to secondary education but for higher education it is completely different from other systems as it is independent on federal government. This freedom is maintained by states, religious communities and individuals to keep safe the quality of education. It has a variety of institutions for every type of student which can satisfy students from rural to urban, poor to rich, or other possible criteria. US higher education system is basically developed on the concepts of British and German systems As it provides huge number of choices, it is important to understand the system to go for a suitable plan or to obtain higher studies in USA. Not only the diversity is noticeable but the size is also adorable of this system. These are approximately 6500 institutions, 4200 for the regular degree and 2300 for the transferable degree.
Higher education in the United States is an alternative stage of formal learning. Higher education can also be termed as post-secondary education, third- level or tertiary education. This covers 5 to 8 phases on the international ISCED 2011system. Many third party organizations almost control the US higher education.
US universities may be- Public Universities
-Liberal arts Colleges
In investing technique USA is unique, while investing they uses different strategies.
FUNCTIONS OF USA HIGHER EDUCATION
It has both functions primary as well as secondary functions:
Primary function has four stages which have been utilized in the development are
Spreading global economy
Progressing the national interest
Conserve Christian civilization
The college capacities as a ‘status marker’ , flagging enrollment in the informed class and a spot to meet companions of comparable status. Higher education industry has been blame for being unneeded costly.
Private Universities – these are independently played by private organizations and have a better quality of tution and the size of these is equal to state schools. These prefer similar religions students to the foundation. These are also of two types-
Private not-for-profit institutions –these do not focus on profit but on the help of society. These usually include four years liberal arts colleges and also the research universities. These focus on undergraduate teaching, and always look for women’s education and colleges, and fields such as fine-arts and nursing.
Private for-profit institution – they usually provide the associate degree and grants certificates instead of degrees. But many of them also offer bachelor’s degree.
Types of students – as we discussed earlier that U.S system satisfies every type of students then what type of they students are watchable. Student group of USA is diverse in both size and types. They keep distinctions in their ages, castes, gender, academic, tastes, and socio-economic standard.
Women have majority among this student population, and one-third are minority group student. About 70% of students admitted late due to their personal or company reasons and problems which may be that they or married, they study part time or got the diploma late etc.
State Universities – every state has university rule by the local government and it is named after state name or contains the word ‘state’ in its name example – “Washington state universities”.
This usually take one or two years to complete. Some countries students are allowed only for Master’s degree among higher students in USA. To get admission in the degree in USA one will need to crack some tests called GRE (Graduate Record Examination) they are specific for courses as LSAT, GMAT, and MCAT for low business and medical schools respectively. Graduate students must have to provide research proper called a ‘Master’s Project’.
Third level – graduate for the Doctorate degree. Many graduate schools priorities the master student to admit for PHD but in most other schools students are free to join with Bachelor’s degree. Usually it takes 3 or more years but for international students it lasts about 5 to 6 year.
In first two years students are trained with classes and seminars than their writing skills are polished with knowledge of views, designs are research .
A doctoral student has to prepare a dissertation which contain summary of the given topic. With the advancement of higher studies in USA. some universities demand the skill of reading of 2 foreign languages but not all universities do this, with this dissertation students has to pass an oral exam based on the same.
TYPES OF COLLEGES
US colleges and universities are different in their goal and objectives, some of them focus on business, vocational, engineering, or technical educational program and others focus on liberal arts educational program.
The expression “college” imply to one of three kinds of education academy.
Liberal arts Colleges
Undergraduate Institution of a University
Higher education has prompted the formation of accreditation associations, not dependent on the government, to certify for the quality of degrees. Rates are given on the quality of libraries, academic quality, the publishing records of their faculty, financial solvency, degree of the faculty.
Community Colleges – these have 2 years program or transferable or associate degree, which can be used for both, either to get transferred and achieve a higher education in other type university in less time or get a job in own country. This is the great of higher studies in USA. This system was established in 28th century to make the education easy for all ages individuals, and financially week people.
LEVEL IN STATE OR PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES
First or undergraduate level for bachelor’s degree : – there are two ways to join and complete a bachelor’s degree under high studies in USA. the first one is to get admitted in a 4 year college and second one to gain associate 2 years degree than transfer to a 4 year college and switch to bachelor’s degree. Uniqueness of USA system is that student may switch to majors several time but it can take more time and money. Nut common subjects are teach to all courses students in previous years of the course to give a foundation knowledge of surroundings.
Second or graduate level for master’s degree : – This degree is necessary for higher positions in fields of library science, engineering, and educations etc.